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  • EP2213753A1 - Method of production of a slag-forming ...

    The subject matter of the invention is a method of producing a slag-forming compound for secondary steel refining in a ladle or a ladle furnace. According to the invention, the method of producing a steel-forming compound for secondary steel refining in a ladle or a ladle furnace is as follows: the fragmented slag obtained in the reduction process of steelmaking converter slag with the ...

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  • Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking – IspatGuru

    2017-3-28u2002·u2002The synthetic slag is to be designed for each application. The CaO and Al2O3 contents in calcium aluminates is varied in large ranges mainly to suit local conditions of secondary steelmaking in the steel melting shop of the plant. Synthetic slag has CaO content usually in the ranges from 25 % to over 55 %, Al2O3 content in the ranges from 30 % ...

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  • Steelmaking Slag - an overview

    2012-4-4u2002·u2002D. Sichen, in Fundamentals of Metallurgy, 2005 9.5.1 Slag–metal mixing. In steelmaking, slag–metal mixing is a very common phenomenon and it occurs due to the shear at the slag–metal interface caused by excessive liquid steel flow. 37 This mixing leads to emulsification of steel in slag, which increases the total interfacial area and consequently the rate of slag–metal reactions.

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  • Slag corrosion of MgO–C refractories during secondary ...

    Slag corrosion of MgO–C refractories during secondary steel refining. ... is made between a static and a dynamic slag-corrosion test of an AMC refractory material performed at 1600 °C and also ...

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  • Effect of White Mud Addition on Desulfurization Rate of ...

    2021-10-26u2002·u2002Fluorspar (CaF2) is commonly used to control the fluidity of slag in ladle-refining of steel. However, because it is desirable to reduce CaF2 consumption because of its environmental impacts, the industrial waste material such as white mud (WM) was investigated as a potential substitute for fluorspar. Steel sample (Fe-0.3C-0.9Mn-0.3Si-0.03Al-0.05S, mass pct) was melted in a high-frequency ...

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  • An overview of utilization of slag and sludge from steel ...

    2007-3-1u2002·u2002Integrated steel plants utilize mostly five materials such as raw materials, air, water, fuel and power to produce steel. During the production of steel, 2–4 t of wastes are being generated per tonne of steel produced.The various solid wastes in the form of slags and sludges that are emerged from steel plants are blast furnace slag, blast furnace flue dust and sludge, Linz–Donawitz (LD ...

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  • Effect of B2O3 on Melting Temperature of Cao-Based

    Abstract. B2O3 is selected as fluxing agent of CaO-based ladle refining slag to decrease the melting temperature as well as to improve the speed of slag forming and the refining efficiency. The ...

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  • Recycling and environmental issues of metallurgical slags ...

    2004-1-18u2002·u2002Steel slag is a secondary resource of raw material in metallurgical plant. It can be directly taken back to sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking, and used as flux, from which the useful elements can be recovered7. It is advantage that the premelted flux is more easily remelted than the raw flux. On the other hand, steel slag can be used as ...

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  • An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in ...

    LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002).

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  • CoNLL17 Skipgram Terms

    2021-1-23u2002·u2002CoNLL17 Skipgram Terms - Free ebook download as Text File (.txt), PDF File (.pdf) or read book online for free.

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  • Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

    2021-11-19u2002·u2002The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Britain, continental Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, …

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  • Procedure: Internal Review, Research Proposals and Study ...

    2021-11-21u2002·u2002The secondary reviewer will be assigned by the subcommittee member and will be drawn from the names of potential reviewers as per applicant's recommendation. Protocols to be reviewed within one week. Comments of primary and secondary reviewers will …

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  • Research at the IDM

    2021-11-20u2002·u2002Research in the IDM is led by over 34 independent principal investigators in the basic, clinical and public health sciences, and has a strong translational focus. Grant and contract funding is sourced from the US National Institutes of Health, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The Wellcome Trust, EDCTP, the South African Medical Research Council, the National Research Foundation of …

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  • FA20E and FA20F Subaru Engines - australiancar.reviews

    Furthermore, the connecting rod bearings were made from a copper-based alloy. The FA20E and FA20F engines are understood to have cast aluminium pistons. A 'hybrid' coating is applied to the piston skirts to reduce friction, while the top of the pistons has a crown shape with a shallow dish-like cavity for stable combustion on start-up.

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    Subaru's FB25 was a 2.5-litre horizontally-opposed (or 'boxer') four-cylinder petrol engine. Effectively replacing the EJ253, the FB25 engine was a member of Subaru's third generation 'FB' boxer engine family which also included the FB20, FA20D, FA20E and FA20F engines.The FB25 engine first offered in Australia in the 2011 Subaru SH.II Forester.

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    2017-12-11u2002·u2002UNK the, . of and in ' a to was is ) ( for as on by he with 's that at from his it an were are which this also be has or : had first one their its new after but who not they have – ; her she ' two been other when there all % during into school time may years more most only over city some world would where later up such used many can state about national out known university united then made ...

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  • Find Jobs in Germany: Job Search - Expat Guide to

    2021-11-9u2002·u2002Browse our listings to find jobs in Germany for expats, including jobs for English speakers or those in your native language.

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  • Analysis of Secondary Refining Slag Parameters with Focus ...

    2018-9-4u2002·u2002Secondary refining slag samples with different chemical compositions (45-54 % CaO, 7-13 % Al 2 O 3, 20-29 % SiO 2, 9-16 % MgO, 0-5 % CaF 2) were investigated to verify the influence of their effective viscosity on inclusion cleanliness of …

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  • Steel Slag - Material Description - User Guidelines for ...

    2016-3-8u2002·u2002The steel slag produced during the primary stage of steel production is referred to as furnace slag or tap slag. This is the major source of steel slag aggregate. After being tapped from the furnace, the molten steel is transferred in a ladle for further refining to remove additional impurities still contained within the steel.

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  • Liguang Zhu, Yanan Jia, Zengxun Liu, Caijun Zhang ...

    steel and the oxygen activity at the steel–slag interface during ladle refining have not been investigated. In this study, a kinetic model was built to predict the compositions of molten steel ...

    Get Price
  • Mass-Transfer Model for Steel, Slag, and Inclusions during ...

    Precise control of inclusion and molten steel compositions during ladle-furnace refining is important to obtain high-quality steel. Mass-transfer behavior affects these compositions. A model was developed to investigate the mass transfer occurring between molten steel, slag, inclusions, and the refractory during ladle-furnace refining, using two-film theory to describe the reactions.

    Get Price
  • Progresses and Future Prospects of Steelmaking Technologies

    2019-4-3u2002·u2002Corporation are summarized. In the area of refining, priority was placed on reducing slag generation by improving reaction efficiency in the hot metal pretreat-ment process, improving the level of purification in the BOF and secondary refining processes, and expanding iron source utilization by increasing the heating margin.

    Get Price
  • Slag formation during the steel refining process in a ...

    2014-7-8u2002·u2002slag after vacuum refining probably does not reach the equilibrium state and is greatly dependent on the kinetics of processes running on the metal/slag interface. 3. The hybrid model of vacuum steel refining . The idea of the kinetic model of vacuum steel refining is based on the solution previously used for the ladle furnace.

    Get Price
  • Effect of CaF2 on Phosphorus Refining from Molten Steel by ...

    The effect of CaF2 addition on dephosphorization reaction between molten steel and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag using direct reduced iron (DRI) at 1823 K (1550 °C) was investigated.

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  • Final - Smelting and Refining

    refining (e.g. fine particulate matter and metal fume are generated during the furnace processing and transfer of the hot materials); electro-refining (e.g. acid mist emissions from electrolyte solutions); and melting and casting (e.g. metal fume emissions from molten metal and dross handling, and baghouse particles).

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  • Chemical, Mineralogical, and Morphological Properties of ...

    2011-10-26u2002·u2002Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. The mineralogical and morphological properties of BOF and electric-arc-furnace …

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  • Properties and Uses of Steelmaking Slag – IspatGuru

    2018-11-14u2002·u2002Steelmaking slag contains around 10 % of scrap which comes from the refining process or from some of the processing vessel (e.g. BOF, EAF, steel teeming ladle, or tundish). It is advantageous to separate this scrap from the slag for the purpose of recycling the recovered scrap in the primary steelmaking process for making the slag free from ...

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  • Sulfur Removal from Spent Ladle Refining Furnace Slag at ...

    Sulfur removal from LF refining slag for SPHC steel (manufactured at a certain steel plant in China) by blowing air in the hot state was studied by using hot-state experiments in a laboratory ...

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  • An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in ...

    LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002).

    Get Price
  • Slag corrosion of MgO–C refractories during secondary ...

    Slag corrosion of MgO–C refractories during secondary steel refining. ... is made between a static and a dynamic slag-corrosion test of an AMC refractory material performed at 1600 °C and also ...

    Get Price
  • Optimization of By-Products Reuse in the Steel Industry ...

    2016-11-14u2002·u2002The optimization of the reuse of steelmaking by-products and in particular of BOF slag, BOF sludge and mill scales is the final step of a detailed study carried out in order to better manage the resources in an integrated steelworks [3, 13, 14, 28].At the standard production capacity of Taranto ILVA steelworks, (8 Mton/year of crude steel), the average production of BOF slag is 100 kg/ton of ...

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  • Composition for treating steel making slags - Nuflux, LLC

    The desired refining slag preferably serves to provide a continuous partially molten oxide phase on the surface of the steel being treated, to capture and retain inclusive non-metallic material present in the steel (such as aluminum oxide), to be either non-oxidizing or reducing with respect to the steel, to control the sulfur content of the ...

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  • Steel Ladle Well Block Post Mortem

    The corrosion process produced a specific microstructure characterized by: i) a thick discontinuous slag layer composed by secondary spinel+steel+liquid; ii) a thick dense, cracked, and continuous ...

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  • Method of melting steel in a basic oxygen furnace

    (57) Abstract: Usage: in the methods of steel production in steel-smelting unit with the use of lump carbonaceous materials. The inventive method of steel production in basic oxygen Converter includes uploading scrap metal enter into the bath carbon-containing coolants - returnable charge graphitization furnaces, slag-forming, pouring liquid iron and metal blowing oxygen.

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  • Sci-Hub

    The Sci-Hub project supports Open Access movement in science. Research should be published in open access, i.e. be free to read. The Open Access is a new and advanced form of scientific communication, which is going to replace outdated subscription models.

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  • Social:Industrial Revolution - HandWiki

    2021-8-31u2002·u2002The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of …

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  • Analysis of Secondary Refining Slag Parameters with

    2018-9-4u2002·u2002Secondary refining slag samples with different chemical compositions (45-54 % CaO, 7-13 % Al 2 O 3, 20-29 % SiO 2, 9-16 % MgO, 0-5 % CaF 2) were investigated to verify the influence of their effective viscosity on inclusion cleanliness of DIN 38MnS6 in a steelmaking plant. The steel samples

    Get Price
  • Steel Slag - Material Description - User Guidelines for ...

    2016-3-8u2002·u2002The steel slag produced during the primary stage of steel production is referred to as furnace slag or tap slag. This is the major source of steel slag aggregate. After being tapped from the furnace, the molten steel is transferred in a ladle for further refining to …

    Get Price
  • Liguang Zhu, Yanan Jia, Zengxun Liu, Caijun Zhang ...

    steel and the oxygen activity at the steel–slag interface during ladle refining have not been investigated. In this study, a kinetic model was built to predict the compositions of molten steel ...

    Get Price
  • Mass-Transfer Model for Steel, Slag, and Inclusions during ...

    Precise control of inclusion and molten steel compositions during ladle-furnace refining is important to obtain high-quality steel. Mass-transfer behavior affects these compositions. A model was developed to investigate the mass transfer occurring between molten steel, slag, inclusions, and the refractory during ladle-furnace refining, using two-film theory to describe the reactions.

    Get Price
  • Progresses and Future Prospects of Steelmaking

    2019-4-3u2002·u2002Corporation are summarized. In the area of refining, priority was placed on reducing slag generation by improving reaction efficiency in the hot metal pretreat-ment process, improving the level of purification in the BOF and secondary refining processes, and expanding iron source utilization by increasing the heating margin.

    Get Price
  • Slag formation during the steel refining process in a ...

    2014-7-8u2002·u2002slag after vacuum refining probably does not reach the equilibrium state and is greatly dependent on the kinetics of processes running on the metal/slag interface. 3. The hybrid model of vacuum steel refining . The idea of the kinetic model of vacuum steel refining is based on the solution previously used for the ladle furnace.

    Get Price
  • Effect of CaF2 on Phosphorus Refining from Molten Steel

    The effect of CaF2 addition on dephosphorization reaction between molten steel and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag using direct reduced iron (DRI) at 1823 K (1550 °C) was investigated.

    Get Price
  • Final - Smelting and Refining

    refining (e.g. fine particulate matter and metal fume are generated during the furnace processing and transfer of the hot materials); electro-refining (e.g. acid mist emissions from electrolyte solutions); and melting and casting (e.g. metal fume emissions from molten …

    Get Price
  • Chemical, Mineralogical, and Morphological Properties of ...

    2011-10-26u2002·u2002Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. The mineralogical and morphological properties of BOF and electric-arc-furnace-ladle [EAF(L)] slag ...

    Get Price